Falling is the
leading cause of worldwide injuries. Approximately 60% of all
falls are initiated by slipping. The static coefficient of
friction (SCOF) between a person's footwear and the walking
surface is an indication of the friction available to prevent
a person from slipping.
a safety, health and environmental standards writing organization consisting of experts
that have written pedestrian based slip resistance test
methods for walkways and footwear. The VOSI
"Universal Specification/Test Methods" and
"Standards" for "Slip Resistant
Walkways" and "Slip Resistant Footwear" are
based only on the needs of people during work and leisure
activities; unlike the conflicting, materials based ASTM* and
ANSI** slip resistance test methods.
* American Society for Testing and
Note: ASTM has no legal objections to
the VOSI website revised 2/25/00 and subsequent revisions
which retain the same type of ASTM references.
Reference: Civil Action 99 - 4357, ASTM vs. Donald C.
Meserlian; 2/22/00 Settlement Conference; 2/29/00 Case
Dismissal by U.S. District Court of Eastern Pa.
** America National Standards Institute
Note: This organization only accredits materials based
Standards Development Organizations (SDOs).
WARNING: Only the
static coefficient of friction, SCOF, is recognized in the
U.S. as the criteria for determining whether flooring or
footwear is slip resistant. Any friction tester (tribometer)
sensor that impacts the floor measures the Dynamic COF
(DCOF). VOSI Task Group V41.20.1(TIRB) has determined that the
Brungraber Mark I (ASTM F1678) and Mark II (ASTM F1677) are
static and dynamic COF testers respectively. In
addition, the English XL (ASTM F1679) is also a dynamic
friction tester. ANSI A1264.2 specifies both ASTM F1677
and F1679 for measuring the slip resistance of walkway
surfaces using a "Neolite" sensor. Neolite
gives significantly higher readings than a typical rubber
footwear material, EVA, which is specified in the VOSI
standards. (Click here to see
actual examples of SCOF & DCOF)
The VOSI Chairman, Donald Meserlian, is also an ASTM
here to see my standard negative vote on all ASTM Slip
Resistance Standards which do not reference VOSI Slip
Resistance Standards for Flooring and Footwear.
Engineers" for a further discussion on why Forensic
Engineers or materials testing laboratories should not use any ASTM
or ANSI approved Slip Resistance Standard
Credible court testimony cannot be achieved with
either the ASTM or ANSI test methods. Only the
VOSI method for "slip resistant walkways"
correlates with slip & fall accident rate. (Meserlian,
"The Effect of Walking Cadence on SCOF Required
by the Elderly", Professional Safety, November
A list of credible experts, for
slip & fall cases, will be provided to attorneys
& insurance companies.
The following paper, authored by the VOSI Chairman, for the
100th Anniversary of the ASTM (1998), "The Good & Bad
Impact of ASTM Standards" proves "There are
approximately twice as many fatalities, 14 times as many
hospitalizations, and eight times as many non-hospitalized
injuries due to falls compared to fires and burns.".
Click here to see this
important paper: "The Good & Bad Impact of ASTM
VOSI has requested the NIST Interagency Committee on
Standards Policy (ICSP) Chairman, Belinda Collins, to utilize
the National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act of 1995
to require the NIST building & fire research department to
utilize VOSI V41.23B, "Standard for Building
Design, Construction and Operation".
VOSI Standards - Terminology Standard
- V41.24 for "Standard for Standards Terminology"
The accuracy and credibility of consensus standards is based on accepted definitions of key words. This
standard specifies the accepted sources for the definitions of both
non-scientific and scientific terms.
A review of these definitions is a key factor used by the VOSI "Technical Issues Review Board" (TIRB) when deciding
on conflicting standards between VOSI, ANSI and ASTM etc.
will be written for the following leisure activities:
Swimming, Dancing, & Hiking. Anyone interested in
contributing to these task groups should fax their experience