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Slip & Fall Standards - Main Page

Falling is the leading cause of worldwide injuries. Approximately 60% of all falls are initiated by slipping. The static coefficient of friction (SCOF) between a person's footwear and the walking surface is an indication of the friction available to prevent a person from slipping.


To All Persons Who Require
Scientific, Performance Based Methods
Measuring the
Slip-Resistance of Walkway Materials and Coatings

Click here to View a Sample SCOF Analysis Report

Please note that conclusions 4 and 5 of this Sample SCOF Analysis Report explain why none of the ASTM or ASTM/ANSI walkway and footwear slip resistance test methods should be used; VOSI is the only NIST recognized laboratory accrediting organization for testing the slip resistance of walkway surfaces, coatings and footwear.


VOSI is a safety, health and environmental standards writing organization consisting of experts that have written pedestrian based slip resistance test methods for walkways and footwear.  The VOSI "Universal Specification/Test Methods" and "Standards" for "Slip Resistant Walkways" and "Slip Resistant Footwear" are based only on the needs of people during work and leisure activities; unlike the conflicting, materials based ASTM* and ANSI** slip resistance test methods.

* American Society for Testing and Materials
Note: ASTM has no legal objections to the VOSI website revised 2/25/00 and subsequent revisions which retain the same type of ASTM references.  Reference: Civil Action 99 - 4357, ASTM vs. Donald C. Meserlian; 2/22/00 Settlement Conference; 2/29/00 Case Dismissal by U.S. District Court of Eastern Pa.

** America National Standards Institute
This organization only accredits materials based Standards Development Organizations (SDOs).

WARNING:  Only the static coefficient of friction, SCOF, is recognized in the U.S. as the criteria for determining whether flooring or footwear is slip resistant.  Any friction tester (tribometer) sensor that impacts the floor measures the Dynamic COF (DCOF).  VOSI Task Group V41.20.1(TIRB) has determined that the Brungraber Mark I (ASTM F1678) and Mark II (ASTM F1677) are static and dynamic COF testers respectively.  In addition, the English XL (ASTM F1679) is also a dynamic friction tester.  ANSI A1264.2 specifies both ASTM F1677 and F1679 for measuring the slip resistance of walkway surfaces using a "Neolite" sensor.  Neolite gives significantly higher readings than a typical rubber footwear material, EVA, which is specified in the VOSI standards. (Click here to see actual examples of SCOF & DCOF)

The VOSI Chairman, Donald Meserlian, is also an ASTM member. Click here to see my standard negative vote on all ASTM Slip Resistance Standards which do not reference VOSI Slip Resistance Standards for Flooring and Footwear.

Click "Forensic Engineers" for a further discussion on why Forensic Engineers or materials testing laboratories should not use any ASTM or ANSI approved Slip Resistance Standard Test Method.

Credible court testimony cannot be achieved with either the ASTM or ANSI test methods.  Only the VOSI method for "slip resistant walkways" correlates with slip & fall accident rate. (Meserlian, "The Effect of Walking Cadence on SCOF Required by the Elderly", Professional Safety, November 1995).

A list of credible experts, for slip & fall cases, will be provided to attorneys & insurance companies.

The following paper, authored by the VOSI Chairman, for the 100th Anniversary of the ASTM (1998), "The Good & Bad Impact of ASTM Standards" proves "There are approximately twice as many fatalities, 14 times as many hospitalizations, and eight times as many non-hospitalized injuries due to falls compared to fires and burns.".

Click here to see this important paper: "The Good & Bad Impact of ASTM Standards".

VOSI has requested the NIST Interagency Committee on Standards Policy (ICSP) Chairman, Belinda Collins, to utilize the National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act of 1995 (see http://ts.nist.gov/ts/htdocs/210/nttaa/plan.htm) to require the NIST building & fire research department to utilize VOSI V41.23B, "Standard for Building Design, Construction and Operation".




VOSI Standards - Terminology Standard

  • V41.24 for "Standard for Standards Terminology" 
    The accuracy and credibility of consensus standards is based on accepted definitions of key words. This standard specifies the accepted sources for the definitions of both non-scientific and scientific terms. A review of these definitions is a key factor used by the VOSI "Technical Issues Review Board" (TIRB) when deciding on conflicting standards between VOSI, ANSI and ASTM etc.

Standards will be written for the following leisure activities: Swimming, Dancing, & Hiking.  Anyone interested in contributing to these task groups should fax their experience to VOSI.

Voices of Safety International (VOSI) - 1998 - 2018
Contact: webmaster@voicesofsafety.com
Created: 1998-08-14 Last Updated: 2002-04-29